- Your Bridge to Health -

Stretching and strengthening exercises recommended for pain disorder
January 26, 2018

Effects of this type of treatment unclear due to lack of research-

Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common and chronic (long-lasting) pain disorder. It occurs when pressure on sensitive spots in the muscles—which are called trigger points—causes pain in different areas of the body. MPS can occur for many reasons and may be aggravated by performing certain motions on a repetitive basis or develop for unknown reasons, and it usually tends to get worse over time. There are several treatments commonly used to manage patients with the condition, and many are offered in the course of physical therapy. Some of these include massage, ultrasound, heat therapy, stretching exercises and strengthening exercises, but unfortunately, it’s not clear how effective many of these treatments are. This is due to the fact that there are only a limited number of studies on the topic, and these few studies suffer from certain flaws, which reduces the validity of their findings. For this reason, a powerful study called a systematic review was conducted to answer the following question: does exercise reduce the intensity of pain and disability in individuals with MPS.

Eight studies are evaluated in the review

To conduct the review, investigators searched through six major medical databases for studies that evaluated the use of exercise compared to other treatments or no treatment for MPS. Only high-quality studies called randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs—which are similar but considered lower quality—were accepted in the review. This search process led to a total of eight RCTs, which included information on 255 participants ranging in age from 21-56, being used for the review. The quality of each of these studies was then evaluated and their findings were compared to one another. The goal of this process was to identify a common trend and establish a clearer understanding of the role of exercise in treating MPS.

Despite some shortcomings, researchers recommend exercise combination for MPS

Overall, the studies supported exercise as a beneficial treatment for MPS, but their low quality needs to be taken into consideration. The exercise was found to significantly reduce the intensity of pain in the short term when compared with minimal or no intervention, but the evidence to support this was not of the highest quality. Despite this, the researchers still believe that exercise is an effective treatment for MPS and recommend that medical professionals consider it. This is primarily due to the fact that exercise is low cost, safe—no studies reported any harmful effects—and associated with countless other benefits in the general population. Based on the findings of this review, they particularly recommend combining strengthening exercises with stretching exercises in order to achieve the most significant improvements in patients. With this in mind, future studies should continue to evaluate this topic and specifically focus on treatments that include both stretching and strengthening exercises for MPS. In the meantime, patients with MPS and other painful conditions should still consider exercising a safe and effective way to address their pain and improve their overall health.

-As reported in the January ’17 issue of the Journal of Physiotherapy

Strengthening exercises are recommended for instability of shoulders
January 18, 2018

Clear guidelines will help medical professionals give the best available treatments

Glenohumeral instability—or shoulder instability—is a condition that occurs when the head of the upper arm bone (humerus) falls out of the shoulder “socket,” which is called the glenoid. It affects approximately 2% of the general population and can either happen due to an injury or develop gradually over the course of time. The shoulder is the most mobile but least stable joint in the body, which is one of the major reasons this condition occurs. Athletes who engage in activities that involve overhead motions like baseball, swimming, volleyball, football, tennis and weight lifting repeatedly place stress on the shoulder and increase their chances of developing shoulder instability. Patients with shoulder instability generally experience pain and weakness in the front and back of the shoulder joint, as well as a possible tightening and/or clicking sensation in the back of the shoulder. Several treatments are available for addressing shoulder instability, but there is a need for clear guidelines to better assist medical professionals making treatment decisions. For this reason, a powerful study called a systematic review was conducted, which collected all the highest-quality research available on the topic and compared their findings with the goal of establishing a connection between them.

Three medical databases searched for appropriate studies

Investigators conducted a search of three major medical databases to find relevant studies on different types of rehabilitation programs for shoulder instability. This search led to 101 studies being identified and assessed, and of these, only five met the necessary criteria and were used for the review. Each of these five studies was evaluated to determine its level of quality and then analyzed to find similarities between their findings.

Strengthening of several muscles around the shoulder appears best for condition

Results of this review found strengthening exercises for the rotator cuff and deltoid muscles were most effective for treating shoulder instability by reducing pain and instability, as well as increasing function. A rotator cuff is a group of tendons and muscles that surround the shoulder and keep it stable, and the deltoid is a rounded muscle located on the top of the shoulder. Another component of treatment that was found to be beneficial was scapular stabilization exercises, which are another form of strengthening exercises that target the shoulder blade (scapula) and help keep it stable during movement. Based on these findings, researchers recommend a rehabilitation program that focuses on rotator cuff and deltoid strengthening exercises, and they believe that performing scapular stabilization exercises beforehand may lead to even better results. Medical professionals should take note of these findings, and individuals dealing with shoulder instability to any degree should view physical therapy with strengthening exercises as a strong option to address their condition and help them improve.

-As reported in the November ’16 issue of Physical Therapy in Sport

Back condition lessens after adding physical activity
January 12, 2018

No studies have evaluated this specific type of intervention yet

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a form of arthritis that mainly affects the spine, although other joints throughout the body may also be impacted by it. The condition results from inflammation of the spinal joints, or vertebrae, which can lead to severe, long-lasting pain and discomfort. Due to these symptoms, individuals with AS usually experience a reduction in their physical fitness, work productivity and quality of life. As a result, physical activity is considered a key component of treatment for AS patients. Increased exercise has been found to improve physical function, mobility, and quality of life in those with AS, which is on top of its ability to reduce the risk for heart disease, obesity, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. But despite these and other benefits of regular exercise, most individuals with AS are not physically active and do not comply well with exercise programs prescribed to them. Getting through to these patients and others with arthritic conditions is a major challenge faced by medical professionals and requires better strategies. One suggestion is to address these individuals with a brief intervention, which includes verbal advice, discussion, and encouragement to make certain changes. Although this type of approach has been researched for treating other conditions, no studies have investigated it on AS patients. Therefore, a powerful study called a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to determine if a brief intervention could improve physical activity levels in individuals with AS.

Patients assessed over the span of six months

Patients between the ages of 18-64 diagnosed with AS were invited to the study and screened to determine if they could participate. This process led to 40 AS patients being accepted, who were then randomly assigned to either the brief intervention group or the control group. Participants in the intervention group attended several 30-minute consultations with a physical therapist over three months—the range for number of sessions was 2-6—where the goal was to motivate and support these individuals to engage in a more physical activity. In efforts to accomplish this, each participant was given an information booklet on AS, provided with resources on local physical activity classes and programs, and set individual physical activity goals and a plan to accomplish them with the physical therapist. All participants also scheduled follow-up sessions with the physical therapist at their discretion to track their progress and review their goals as they worked towards them. Participants in the control group did not attend these sessions over this time and were simply instructed to continue with their normal physical activity. All participants were assessed at the start of the study, after the three-month intervention and another three months later using various outcomes for physical activity, fitness, and quality of life.

Brief interventions lead to increased physical activity and better quality of life

On the whole, the brief intervention approach seemed to be effective for increasing physical activity levels and bringing about other benefits in AS patients. After six months, 70% of participants in the intervention group were adhering to the guidelines for aerobic physical activity, which was significantly higher than the adherence rates in the control group. In addition, intervention group participants experienced a moderate improvement on scores for their spinal flexibility, as well as a significant improvement in their quality of life. Finally, the brief intervention approach was well tolerated by participants, who were able to choose and moderate their personal activities according to their personal abilities and goals. This may have increased the chances of them being able to boost their regular activity levels.

Overall, these findings show that using a brief intervention to advise and motivate patients with AS to become more physically active can be effective for accomplishing this task, while also leading to other positive changes. AS patients should, therefore, seek out the services of a physical therapist, who can offer them with this type of intervention and monitor them along the way to help ensure they continue working towards their physical activity goals.

-As reported in the January ’17 issue of the Journal of Physiotherapy

Elastic bands in physical therapy improves several physical features
January 4, 2018

Bands can be a useful exercise tool in the elderly population

Falls remain a major problem in the elderly population. In general, falls result from poor balance and a fear of walking, and they can lead to injuries—like hip fractures and traumatic brain injuries—or possibly death in extreme circumstances. Fear of walking can also lead to reduced physical activity in older adults, which may, in turn, create a vicious cycle of more fear and less physical activity. The risk of falling increases with older age, which is why it’s important to develop strategies that will reduce this risk. Exercise programs are commonly used to address this problem since they are capable of increasing strength and improving balance and flexibility. Elastic bands, in particular, are one tool that can be very helpful in these exercise programs for the elderly. These bands are portable, inexpensive and easy to use, and may, therefore, be ideal for improving strength and reducing the risk for falls in older adults. For this reason, a study was conducted to determine if elastic bands could improve balance and other physical features in order to lower the fall risk in the elderly population.

Two groups of participants follow different treatments for eight weeks

Adults aged 65 and older were asked to participate in the study, and a total of 45 accepted the invitation. These participants were then evenly divided into two groups: the experimental group and the control group. Both groups underwent a physical therapy program that took place during three 60-minute sessions per week for eight weeks. These sessions included ice or heat, ultrasound, electrical stimulation and a variety of stretching exercises that targeted the spine. The experimental group also followed a course of elastic band exercises in addition to physical therapy. This took place during three 30-minute sessions per week for eight weeks after physical therapy was finished, and consisted of several strengthening exercises for the ankles, knees, and hips using the elastic bands. All participants were evaluated before the treatment began and immediately afterward for a number of variables related to balance and falls.

Both groups improve, but elastic bands lead to better overall results

Results showed that both groups improved in all measurements taken, but the experimental group reported greater overall changes than the control group. This was found to be the case in scores for balance, flexibility, fear of falling and gait ability, which rated how well each participant walked. These findings show that while physical therapy is independently capable of improving physical features related to falling in older individuals, the addition of elastic band exercises may lead to even greater improvements. Perhaps most important of all, adding these exercises may also reduce the fear of falling in the elderly, which is a major contributing factor to falls. Based on these results, it appears that a physical therapy program that includes elastic band exercises can lead to several benefits and reduce the risk of falls in the elderly population. Using this type of program can, therefore, help to build confidence in older adults and may in time lower the overall rate of falls.

-As reported in the November ’16 issue of the Journal of Physical Therapy Science

Cost for Physical Therapy can be more effective for elbow conditions
December 30, 2017

Lack of guidelines makes it difficult for some doctors to determine the best treatment

Lateral epicondylitis, which is commonly referred to as tennis elbow, is a painful condition that results from overuse. It occurs when tendons that connect the muscles of the forearm to the outside of the elbow become damaged and inflamed, which leads to pain or burning in this region. Tennis elbow is—unsurprisingly—most common in tennis players, but it can also affect other athletes and anyone who performs a motion that involves the elbow over and over. Although there are several treatment options available for tennis elbow, there are no national guidelines or overall consensus for the best way to treat the condition in Australia and the U.K. One treatment that is still commonly used is steroid injections, even though several studies have shown that physical therapy and a “wait and see” approach lead to better results in the long term. An important tool that patients can use to determine whether a treatment is worth using is called cost-effectiveness, which calculates its value based on the cost and how beneficial it is. With this in mind, researchers decided to analyze the findings of a powerful study called a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) to compare the cost-effectiveness of steroid injections to physical therapy for treating tennis elbow.

Four groups of patients compared to one another

In the original RCT, 154 individuals with tennis elbow for at least six weeks were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. Group 1 only received a saline injection, which was the placebo treatment, while group 2 received the placebo plus physical therapy, group 3 received the steroid injection, and group 4 received a combination of a steroid injection and physical therapy. Injections of either saline or steroids were administered to each patient’s elbow, and they were all told to rest for 10 days, and then gradually return to activity afterward. Patients in the physical therapy groups received treatment through a program of eight 30-minute sessions. These sessions consisted of various strengthening exercises for the wrist and upper body, as well as manual treatments given by the physical therapist, and all patients were instructed to follow a home-exercise program as well. Following these interventions, all participants were evaluated to see whether they improved and which treatments were most cost-effective.

Investigators advise against the use of injections and recommend physical therapy instead

On the whole, the results of this RCT favored physical therapy over steroid injections for tennis elbow. Physical therapy was found to have a greater initial cost since it was carried out over eight treatment sessions, but it was the only intervention that resulted in a significantly greater quality of life for patients. Steroid injections led to some short-term benefits, but they did not last in the long-term when compared to physical therapy and placebo. Furthermore, there was little evidence to support these injections as a cost-effective treatment for tennis elbow. On the other hand, a detailed analysis suggested that physical therapy is highly likely to be a cost-effective intervention for this condition based on its impact on patients. The combination of injections and physical therapy produced both high costs and very variable outcomes for patients. Based on these findings, investigators advise against the use of steroid injections and instead recommend physical therapy as the first-line treatment for tennis elbow. Individuals with this condition should, therefore, keep this information in mind when making treatment decisions and strongly consider physical therapy services to in order to experience the greatest improvements.

-As reported in the November ’16 issue of the British Journal of Sports Medicine

Effectiveness of an exercise program supports a larger study
December 16, 2017

Painful condition is particularly common in older adults

Osteoarthritis is a painful condition that affects the cartilage of joints in the body. This cartilage normally protects the ends of bones, but in osteoarthritis, it wears away gradually over time. Eventually, this causes bones to rub against one another and leads to pain and disability. Osteoarthritis can occur in any joint, but it is most common in the knees, hips, and hands. It’s also especially common in the elderly population, where it is often responsible for limiting the abilities of older adults to function.

Review shows how this treatment can reduce pain and improve function

Exercise, education and weight loss are considered to be the primary treatments recommended for osteoarthritis, and research has been supportive of exercise as an effective form of therapy. To investigate these effects in greater detail, researchers conducted a very powerful study called a Cochrane systematic review. This type of study collects all the highest-quality evidence available on a certain topic and is considered to be the highest standard of health research that can be performed. The Cochrane systematic review identified 10 studies called randomized-controlled trials and analyzed their findings. Researchers found high-quality evidence that showed exercise therapy led to a greater reduction in pain and better physical functioning than a control treatment for up to 3-6 months. Taking it a step further, they wanted to know if they could apply these findings to an individual with hip osteoarthritis and get similar results.

Treatment applied to 71-year-old woman with hip osteoarthritis

A 71-year-old woman referred to as Mrs. J served as the study subject. She had pain in both of her hips from osteoarthritis for the past 10 years, which had recently gotten worse. To answer the question of whether an exercise program would be effective for Mrs. J, she followed an exercise program that consisted of four hour-long physical therapy sessions every three months for nine months, as well as a home-exercise program. This consisted of strengthening exercises for the hips and gluteal muscles, which she was instructed to perform three times per week. Other components of her treatment program included an exercise bike, walking program and water-based exercise, which she did for various durations.

Mrs. J’s improvements are similar to those in the review

After nine months of physical therapy and exercise, Mrs. J experienced significant improvements in pain, physical function, and quality of life. She was also able to walk for 40 minutes and play lawn bowling—which she could not do before—with only mild discomfort. These results are similar to those found in the Cochrane review and shows that those findings can actually be applied to adults with hip osteoarthritis like Mrs. J. Based on this, it appears that most individuals with hip osteoarthritis will benefit from a program of exercise and physical therapy with less pain and better physical functioning.

-As reported in the June ’16 issue of Physical Therapy

Physical therapy following back surgery significantly helps recovery
December 7, 2017

More research is needed to identify the best protocols following surgery

Low back pain is the single leading cause of disability throughout the world, and about 31 million Americans experience it at any given point in time. There are many different conditions that may lead to the development of low back pain, and one of the most common is called degenerative disc disease. This type of disorder occurs when intervertebral discs that rest between each bone (vertebra) of the spine experience changes that causes them to break down, which results in symptoms like low back and neck pain. Although non-surgical treatments like physical therapy is typically recommended at first for degenerative disc disease, a surgical procedure called lumbar total disc replacement (LTDR) may be recommended if the condition doesn’t improve or worsens. The goal of LTDR is to relieve pain and restore the motion of the spine, and the number of these surgeries performed has increased in recent times. Following surgery, physical therapy is often prescribed to help patients recover properly, but there is a general lack of research that investigates the effects of this type of treatment. For this reason, a study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of physical therapy following an LTDR surgery in order to better guide medical professionals.

Status of large group of patients monitored for two years

Patients who underwent LTDR for degenerative disc disease or a similar condition were recruited, and a total of 600 fit the necessary criteria for the study. Following surgery, all patients were given the option of either rehabilitating on their own or receiving physical therapy. This led to 202 patients who rehabilitated on their own (group 1), 123 who received 1-3 sessions of physical therapy (group 2) and 275 who received four or more sessions of physical therapy. Physical therapy began four weeks after surgery and consisted of education on surgery and the recovery process, treatments administered by the therapist, and various exercises. The exercises focused on improving the way patients walked and aligning their posture, as well as stretching the legs and lower back. All patients were assessed for low back pain, disability, and quality of life at three, six, 12 and 24 months after surgery using a number of different tools.

Patients who receive multiple sessions of physical therapy improve the most

Results showed that patients who received four or more sessions of physical therapy following LTDR surgery (group 3) experienced the most significant improvements of all groups. In particular, these participants showed less functional disability, reduced pain and better quality of life than the other two groups. These improvements were noticed as early as three months and were maintained up until the final patient assessment at 24 months. Based on these findings, it appears that a physical therapy rehabilitation program consisting of at least four sessions is effective for reducing pain and disability and improving the quality of life for patients following LTDR. Though additional research is needed to confirm these findings, patients who are scheduled to have this type of back surgery should be sure to opt for physical therapy afterward in order to experience the best possible outcomes.

-As reported in the September ’16 issue of Physiotherapy Research International

Walking meetings may increase physical activity in the workplace
November 24, 2017

No studies have looked into this type of approach yet

Sitting for extended periods of time on a regular basis can lead to a number of health-related issues. Unfortunately, the majority of Americans spend a large part of their days sitting at a desk because it’s part of their job. Walking, on the other hand, is known to have a positive impact on overall health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends walking at least 10,000 steps per day. Even walking for as little as 30 minutes each day has been found to reduce the risk for chronic diseases like osteoporosis, breast and colon cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Sadly, there are very few opportunities for workers who sit for most of the day to increase their physical activity levels and walk more at work. This is even more difficult in white-collar work environments, which generally don’t support physical activity throughout the day, as is the case in many blue-collar environments. One way to increase the amount of physical activity in the workplace is by walking during meetings instead of sitting. Although this idea has been around for some time—and may even be used at some businesses already—no studies have been performed yet to investigate the effect of walking meetings on physical activity. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted to determine how walking meetings affect physical activity levels, and if this sort of program is acceptable and feasible. A pilot study is an initial study performed to decide if future research should be conducted on a topic.

17 workers participate in three-week study

Researchers recruited groups of workers that had an established meeting time and met for 30 or 60 minutes every week. This process led to seven groups of two or three workers each being accepted, for a total of 17 participants. All participants were given an accelerometer (a device used to measure physical activity levels) at the start of the study to be worn throughout most of the day for the next three weeks. During the first week, groups were instructed to carry on with their traditional sitting meetings and regular work schedule so that standard data could be collected. For the next two weeks, they were told to modify one of their sitting meetings to a standing meeting instead. At the end of each week, participants filled out a survey that gave additional information on their physical activity levels. Finally, after the third and final week, all groups participated in a focus group with the researchers to discuss how the walking meetings went overall.

Participants increase physical activity levels and find program to be easy to implement

The data taken from the accelerometers and surveys showed that in general, workers were more physically active during the second two weeks of the study. The average number of minutes participants engaged in combined work-related moderate or vigorous physical activity per week increased from 107 during week 1, to 114 at week 2, and 117 at week 3. On the day of the walking meeting, the average number of minutes spent in physical activity increased from 34 minutes at week 1 to 43 minutes at week 3. All participants agreed to the strategy taught by researchers to organize and conduct the walking meetings, and all groups walked for 30-40 minutes during each walking meeting. In addition, participants said that the walking program was feasible, acceptable and easy to implement into their workday without interfering with workflow. Based on these findings, it appears that having walking meetings can be a feasible way to increase physical activity levels in an office work environment, and it’s very easy to introduce. Since this is only a pilot study, more research and larger studies are needed to further evaluate these findings. Nonetheless, this study underlines one possible strategy to get individuals to be more physically active at work and counteract the effects of sitting for most of the day.

-As reported in the June ’16 issue of Preventing Chronic Disease

Exercises are helpful for neck pain
November 17, 2017

Strong evidence to support the use of these exercises is lacking

Neck pain ranks as one of the most common painful disorders out there. At least 15% of the population is affected by it, and it occurs more frequently in women than men and in middle-age individuals. Neck pain can restrict movement and interfere with normal activities, making it a burden to many of those affected by it. In some cases, problems with the neck can lead to what’s called a cervicogenic headache, which means the neck issues need to be addressed to fix it. There are several different strategies for treating neck pain and other disorders, but most consist of various types of exercises to improve flexibility and increase strength in the region. Although these exercises are commonly used to treat neck pain, some recent studies have only found low-quality evidence to support their use. For this reason, stronger evidence is needed to more firmly recommend different types of exercise for neck disorders. Researchers, therefore, decided to conduct a Cochrane review on the topic. Cochrane reviews collect all the highest-quality research available in order to provide guidance for treatment, and this particular review focused on the effectiveness of different types of exercise for neck disorders.

Researchers identify 27 studies to use for the review

To conduct this review, researchers looked for studies that investigated the use of various exercises for neck disorders. They only accepted randomized-controlled trials (RCTs), which are the most powerful type of individual studies conducted, where patient are randomly assigned to different treatment groups to determine which is most effective. This search process led to a total of 27 RCTs being accepted for the review. The results of each RCT were graded based on the effect of each treatment studied as either small, medium or large. All studies were also assessed for their level of quality to determine how reliable the information they provided was.

Exercises that improve strength and endurance are found to be effective

On the whole, there was not much strong evidence to support the use of exercises as researchers had hoped to find. Nonetheless, they identified studies of moderate quality that showed how effective various exercises can be for neck disorders. In particular, they found moderate evidence that showed strengthening exercises and endurance training for the neck and surrounding muscles were effective for both neck pain and cervicogenic headaches. There was also low-quality evidence that using stretching exercises only was not very effective for neck disorders. Based on these findings, it appears that exercises that increase strength and endurance may be beneficial for patients with neck disorders. Since the overall quality of evidence in the review was low, researchers suggest that additional studies are conducted to investigate this topic further. While results from these studies are anticipated, patients with neck disorders should be encouraged to see a physical therapist for exercise recommendations and other guidance to properly address their condition.

-As reported in the August ’16 issue of Manual Therapy

Strengthening exercises are beneficial for arthritis
November 9, 2017

Release of new research calls for an updated review

Osteoarthritis is a painful condition in which cartilage that normally serves as protection for joints gradually wears away over time. Eventually, this causes bones to rub against one another and results in pain and disability that make it difficult to function normally. Osteoarthritis can occur in any joint, but it’s most common in the knees and the hips. There are a number of strategies that can be used to treat knee osteoarthritis, including exercises guided by a physical therapist, known as exercise therapy. One component of exercise therapy is called resistance exercise, which uses some form of resistance—such as body weight, elastic bands or machines—to force muscles to contract. It has been found to reduce pain and is commonly used in many physical therapy programs. Some studies have evaluated the use of resistance exercise for treating knee osteoarthritis, but there have been flaws in the research that makes it inconclusive. In addition, new research has emerged on the topic recently that calls for an updated review to analyze. With this in mind, researchers conducted a powerful pair of studies called a systematic review and meta-analysis. The systematic review gathered all of the highest-quality evidence on the topic available, and the meta-analysis compared the findings of these studies to one another with the goal of reaching a conclusion.

Researchers search five databases for relevant studies

To perform the review, investigators searched through five major medical databases to find studies on the use of resistance exercises to treat knee osteoarthritis. They only accepted randomized-controlled trials (RCTs)—which are considered to be the highest quality of individual study available—that compared resistance exercise to a control treatment. This could include no treatment or something basic like an educational course that did not include resistance exercises. The search led to a total of 17 RCTs, which included information on 1,705 patients with an average age of 63.5 years. Investigators than analyzed each of these studies and then compared their findings with one another to identify similarities and trends.

Resistance exercise found to reduce pain, relieve stiffness and improve function

Results showed that resistance exercise led to significant benefits when compared to control treatments. In particular, these types of exercises were found to reduce pain, relieve stiffness and improve overall function for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Further analysis showed that exercises with a higher intensity led to greater improvements in pain and function than those that were performed at a lower intensity. Based on these findings, it appears that utilizing resistance exercises can be beneficial in a number of ways for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Common exercises that may be helpful in this capacity include seated leg presses, leg extensions, leg curls and hip adduction and abduction exercises. Many physical therapists typically use these types of exercises when treating this group of patients, and those with the condition should, therefore, seek out their services in order to achieve an outcome that will help them move and function more easily.

-As reported in the October ’16 issue of Clinical Rehabilitation